Sunday, October 29, 2006
One of the consequences of the education of the class of soldiers was the formulation of the specific world view of Samurai - busido - the nepisanogo code of the behavior of Samurai in the society, who was the regulation and standards of "true", "ideal" soldier. Busido, which was being initially treated as the "way of horse and bow", subsequently began to indicate the "way of Samurai, soldier" ("busi" - soldier, Samurai; "to" - way, study, method, means). Furthermore, word "to" is transferred still and as "debt", "morals", which has a correspondence with the classical philosophical tradition of China, where the concept "way" is the certain ethical standard (dao-de). Thus, busido - these are "samurai morals", "virtue", "moral and ethical" code. Busido concerned the attitude of Samurai toward social feudal generality, to the people of one or other class or another, to the state. The content busido left beyond the framework of the previous traditions of the rodoplemennogo society - it included the dogmas of Buddhism and confucianism and had the new standards of behavior at its basis. Being gradually developed, busido became the moral code of soldiers, which is appeared of at the same time predominantly partly different religious studies (Buddhism, confucianism and sintoizma - national of the religion of the Japanese), it became also the region of philosophical knowledge, the object of ethics. Being poured together with the eastern philosophy, busido bore the nature of practical moralization. Samurai considered as the its method of improving the mental and solid hygiene. Busido morally interpreted philosophical peace study as a whole and it was called learn the Samurai of "correct life" in the feudal Japanese society. It combined in itself the theory of existence and the study of the psyche of man, solved the problems, connected with the concept of the essence of individual, his role in the surrounding peace, the sense of life, good and evil, moral values and moral ideal. Soldier, brought up in the spirit busido, had to clearly realize his moral debt, in particular his personal responsibilities with respect to the suzerain, had to itself evaluate its actions and behavior, morally condemn itself in the case of improper actions, disturbance of its responsibilities and debt. This moral samoosuzhdeniye entailed, as a rule, the suicide, which was being accomplished on the specific ritual via hara-kiri - the dissection of stomach by small samurai sword. Thus Samurai washed off by the blood the disgrace, pozoryashcheye him. Busido, as the method of regulating the behavior of soldier, rested directly not on what special establishments, which constrained to the observance of moral standards, it was based on the force of persuasion, public opinion, example, training, traditions and the force of the moral authority of the individual persons, noted in the medieval history of Japan. Principles busido not were united into the special regulation and not were presented not in one literary monument of feudal times; however, they found their reflection in legends and narratives of the past, which tell about the faithfulness of vassal to their feudal lord, about contempt to death, courage and the durability of Samurai. However, on the indication Of tokugava To ieyasu in the first years after its accession to power was comprised the "packing code about the samurai kinds" ("Buke se khatto"), that determined the standards of the behavior of Samurai on the service and in the personal life. The second composition, dedicated to the glorification of dogmas busido, was the zhitiynoye description of prince taked's exploits Singena in twenty volumes, whose authorship divided Kosaka Dandze Of nobumasa and Obata Of kagenori. Somewhat more lately appeared the labor Of daydodzi Of yudzana (1639 - 1730) the "initial bases of military skills" ("Budo sesin syu"). And finally, in 1716 left 11 volumes of the book "concealed in the foliage" ("Khagakure"), of become the "Scripture" busi. This curious work belonged to Yamamoto Tsunetomo, to monk, and in the past to the Samurai of clan saga on the southern island of Kyushu after death of its Mr., dayme Of nabesima Of naosige, which it correctly served ten years, Yamamoto accepted vows and he dedicated entire remained life to the generalization of the dogmas of samurai honor. Busido even it is not possible to name study in the literal sense, this, are faster, one of the forms of the expression of feudal ideology, its basic condition and principles, which were being developed from generation to generation in the course of long time. This is Busido the special morals, manufactured by the class of soldiers, who entered into the ruling class of Japan, which was the system of views, standards and estimations, which were being concerned the behavior of Samurai, the methods of training of samurai young people, creation and strengthening of the specific moral qualities and relations. In spite of all this busido was class morals. It served only samuraystvu, justified all its actions and defended its interests. Clearly and is sufficiently intelligible requirements Busido are formulated at the "initial bases of the military skills" Of daydodzi Of yudzana: "true bravery consists in living, when justifiably to live, and to die, when it is justifiable to die. To death one should go with the clear consciousness of the fact that is necessary to make to Samurai and which degrades its merit. It follows to weigh each word and to invariably assign to itself a question, truth that that you be going to say. It is necessary to be to those moderated in the food and to avoid disorderliness. In the matters of daily to remember about death and to store this word in the heart. To respect the rule of "stem and branches". To forget it - means never to not understand virtues, and person, who disregards dobrodetel'yu of filial respect, is not Samurai. Parents - trunk of tree, children - his branch. Samurai must be not only exemplary son, but also vernopoddannym. He will not leave Mr. even in such a case, when the number of his vassals is reduced with hundred to ten and from ten to one. In war the faithfulness of Samurai is manifested in without the fear going to the enemy arrows and the spears, sacrificing life, if that debt requires. Faithfulness, validity and courage be three natural virtues of Samurai. During the sleep Samurai one ought not to lie down by feet to the side of the residence of suzerain. To the side of Mr. it becomes to aim neither with shooting from bow nor with the exercises with the spear. If Samurai, lying at the bed, hears conversation about his Mr. or intends to say anything itself, it must arise and dress. Falcon does not select the deserted grains, even if it dies to hunger. So Samurai, handling by toothpick, must show that it is satisfied, even if it nothing ate. If in war to Samurai it happens to lose battle and it will have to accumulate head, it one should proudly name its name and die with the smile without the humiliating haste. Being is mortally injured, so that no means no longer can save it, Samurai must respectfully be handled the words of farewell to the elders on the position and quietly emit spirit, being subordinated to inevitable. That possessing only rough force is not worthy the title of Samurai. Without indicating already the need of studying the sciences, soldier must use leisure for the exercises in the poetry and understandings of tea ceremony. Near his house the Samurai can build the modest tea pavilion, in which he is necessary to use new pictures -kak3mono, contemporary modest cups and varnished ceramic teapot ".